Diagnostic Criteria

The diagnostic criteria for multiple myeloma help doctors to evaluate and diagnose the disease based on the results diagnostic laboratory testing testing. Diagnostic Tests can be done on specimens of blood, urine, bone, and bone marrow to determine if these criteria are present. These tests are done not only to determine if multiple myeloma is present but also to assess the extent of disease. Thus, the tests are also valuable for classifying as well as staging multiple myeloma. The diagnostic criteria for multiple myeloma requires confirmation of one major and one minor criteria or three minor criteria in an individual who has signs or symptoms of multiple myeloma.

Major criteria
-Plasmacytoma (as demonstrated on evaluation of biopsy specimen)
-30% plasma cells in a bone marrow sample
-Elevated levels of M protein in the blood or urine

Minor criteria
-10% to 30% plasma cells in a bone marrow sample.
-Minor elevations in the level of M protein in the blood or urine.
-Osteolytic lesions (as demonstrated on imaging studies).
-Low levels of antibodies (not produced by the cancer cells) in the blood.

Count Definition Normal Range*
Erythrocytes
(RBCs)
Number of red blood cells in the blood. Red blood cells bring oxygen from the lungs to the various tissues in the body and carry carbon dioxide back to the lungs. Low numbers of red blood cells or low hemoglobin or hematocrit indicate anemia, which can cause physical and mental fatigue Female 4.1-5.1 x 1012/L
Male 4.5-5.3 x 1012/L
Hemoglobin
(Hb)
Oxygen-carrying substance in red blood cells Female 12 – 16 g/dL
Male 13 – 18 g/dL
Hematocrit
(HCT)
Percentage of red blood cells in the blood. Female 36 – 46%
Male 37 – 49%
Leukocytes
(WBCs)
Number of white blood cells in the blood; counts or percentages of the individual types of blood cells are also provided. White blood cells help fight infection and remove harmful substances from the body. A low number of white cells can increase the possibility of infection Total 3.5 – 10.5 x 109/L
Neutrophils 1.7 – 7.0
Monocytes 0.3 – 0.9
Lymphocytes0.9 – 2.9
Basophils 0.0 – 0.3
Eosinophils 0.05 – 0.5
Platelets Number of platelets in the blood. Because platelets help blood to clot, low counts can lead to excessive bleeding 150 – 450 x 109/L
*Normal ranges may vary.