How is Kyprolis used?
Kyprolis® (carfilzomib, Onyx) is a proteasome inhibitor. In the United States, it is approved for use:
- In combination with low-dose dexamethasone (Kd) or with Revlimid® (lenalidomide, Celgene) and low-dose dexamethasone (KRd) for the treatment of patients with relapsed multiple myeloma who have received one to three prior treatments.
- As a single agent for patients with relapsed or refractory myeloma who have received one or more lines of therapy.
Proteasomes are enzymes found in cells that play an important role in regulating cell function and cell growth by controlling the breakdown of important proteins. As a proteasome inhibitor, Kyprolis blocks the activity of proteasomes and in turn disrupts processes related to the growth and survival of cancer cells.
What types of patients can benefit from Kyprolis?
Kyprolis has been shown to be effective in patients with relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma following treatment with other available agents, including Velcade and Revlimid®. In the trial supporting the initial FDA approval of Kyprolis, 20.1% of patients who did not respond to or could not tolerate Velcade and one or more IMiDs responded to Kyprolis alone.
In addition, Kyprolis has also been shown to be effective in patients with:
- High-risk myeloma with associated DNA abnormalities
- History of previous neuropathy (nerve problems)
- Advanced age (> 65 years old)
It can also be given safely given to patients with reduced kidney function.
Additionally, results from an early study in newly diagnosed patients suggest that the combination of Kyprolis and Revlimid-low-dose dexamethasone is highly effective, with 98% of patients responding to treatment and 42% of patients achieving a stringent complete response.