Myeloma urine tests assist doctors in the diagnosis of multiple myeloma. Multiple myeloma urine tests are conducted to detect M proteins, which are abnormal antibody fragments. These M proteins are excessively produced by an abnormal clonal proliferation of plasma cells. Pathologists will check urine for these abnormal antibodies made by the cancerous plasma cells in multiple myeloma. Common names for these abnormal antibodies include: monoclonal immunoglobulins, paraproteins, or M proteins.
Bence-Jones Protein Test
The Bence-Jones Protein Test is the primary urine test that pathologists conduct to diagnose myeloma. The test measures the levels of Bence-Jones proteins in urine. Bence-Jones proteins are not present in the urine of healthy patients, and 75% of multiple myeloma patients will have Bence-Jones protein detected in their urine.