PATIENTS STARTING TREATMENT:

TREATMENT OPTIONS


Emerging Therapies


The developments in myeloma treatment continue to evolve and more agents than ever are under preclinical investigation or in clinical trials. Several classes of therapeutic agents, such as immunomodulatory (IMiD) drugs, monoclonal antibodies (MAb), proteasome inhibitors, angiogenesis inhibitors, heat shock protein inhibitors, and protein kinase inhibitors, among others, are all showing promise in treating symptoms or slowing progress of multiple myeloma.

The table below provides an overview of the agents, listed according to their stage of clinical development. Click on Learn More for detailed information about what these therapies are, how they work, and the status of clinical trials.


Be sure to visit the MMRF Patient Navigator frequently to check for new trial listings for the most promising agents.


Name Company Description
Phase III

Gemzar®
(gemcitabine)

Lilly

Chemotherapy drug FDA-approved for use in a variety of cancers; being evaluated in combination with other chemotherapy drugs and tandem transplant

Tanespimycin (KOS-953; 17-AAG; geldanamycin)

Bristol-Myers Squibb

Inhibitor of a heat shock protein (HSP90) that promotes myeloma cell growth and survival LEARN MORE

Zolinza® (vorinostat, SAHA [suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid])

Merck

Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor that has shown activity in relapsed and refractory myeloma LEARN MORE

Phase II

Afinitor® (everolimus, RAD001, Certican®)

Novartis

mTor inhibitor being evaluated in combination with other agents; known as Certican outside the US, where it is used in preventing transplant rejection

Aflibercept (VEGF Trap)

Regeneron/sanofi-aventis

Anti-angiogenic fusion protein that binds VEGF

Aplidin® (plitidepsin)

PharmaMar, SA

Marine-derived antitumor agent that induces rapid apoptosisLEARN MORE

Bexxar® (iodine I 131 tositumomab)

GlaxoSmithKline

FDA-approved radiolabeled monoclonal antibody directed against CD20, a marker found on B cells and 20% to 25% of myeloma cells

Carfilzomib (PR-171)

Proteolix

Proteasome inhibitor being evaluated alone, as part of combination therapy, and as maintenance therapy LEARN MORE

CNTO 328

Centocor

Anti-interleukin-6 monoclonal antibody being evaluated alone and in combination with Velcade LEARN MORE

Denosumab (AMG 162)

Amgen

Human monoclonal antibody that targets the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) and inhibits bone destruction; being tested alone and in combination with Zometa

Nexavar® (sorafenib)

Bayer/Onxy Pharmaceuticals

Multi-kinase inhibitor FDA-approved for use in renal cell carcinoma that inhibits cell growth and angiogenesis; being evaluated alone and in combination with other agents

Panobinostat (LBH589)

Novartisr

Deacetylase (DAC) inhibitor; being evaluated in combination with other agents LEARN MORE

Palbociclib (PD-0332991)

Pfizer

Kinase inhibitor being evaluated in combination with Velcade and dexamethasone

Pomalidomide (CC-4047)

Celgene Corporation

Type of IMiD™ (immunomodulatory drug) being evaluated alone and in combination with dexamethasone LEARN MORE

Rituxan® (rituximab)

Genentech/Biogen Idec

Monoclonal antibody FDA-approved for use in non-Hodgkin lymphoma that targets the CD20 marker found on B cells and 20% to 35% of myeloma cells

Romidepsin (depsipeptide, FK228, FR901228)

Gloucester Pharmaceuticals/Janssen-Cilag Ltd.

Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor being evaluated in combination with Velcade

Sprycel® (dasatinib)

Bristol-Myers Squibb

Kinase inhibitor FDA-approved for use in chronic myelogenous leukemia; being evaluated in combination with Velcade or Revlimid-dex

Torisel™ (temsirolimus, CCI-779)

Wyeth

mTOR inhibitor FDA-approved for use in renal cell carcinoma; being evaluated alone and in combination with other agents

Treanda®,(bendamustine hydrochloride; known as Ribomustin® in Germany)

Cephalon Oncology

Alkylating agent FDA-approved for use in treating leukemia and approved in Germany for use in myeloma; being evaluated as part of various combination therapies

Trisenox® (arsenic trioxide, ATO)

Cephalon

Anticancer drug FDA-approved for use in acute promyelocytic leukemia

Vidaza® (azacitidine)

Pharmion

Cytotoxic drug FDA-approved for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS)

Romidepsin
(depsipeptide, FK228, FR901228)

Gloucester Pharmaceuticals
/Janssen-Cilag Ltd.

Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor being evaluated in combination with Velcade-dex

Sutent®
(sunitunib malate, SU11248)

Pfizer

Multikinase inhibitor that blocks cancer cell proliferation and angiogenesis; FDA-approved for use in renal cell carcinoma and a type of gastrointestinal cancer

Thymoglobulin®
(rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin (rATG)

Genzyme

Agent FDA-approved for use with immunosuppressants in the treatment of acute renal graft rejection; being evaluated in combination with melphalan or Rapamune® (sirolimus)

Treanda®
(bendamustine hydrochloride, SDX-105; known as Ribomustin® in Germany)

Cephalon Oncology

Alkylating agent FDA-approved for use in treating chronic lymphocytic leukemia and approved in Germany for use in myeloma; recently evaluated as part of various combination therapies

Trisenox®
(arsenic trioxide, ATO)

Cephalon

Anticancer drug FDA-approved for use in acute promyelocytic leukemia

Vidaza®
(azacitidine)

Pharmion

Cytotoxic drug FDA-approved for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS)

Zarnestra™
(R115777, tipifarnib,FTI)

Ortho Biotech Oncology Research & Development

Farnesyl transferase inhibitor with evidence of target modulation in phase I trials

Phase I

Anti-KIR (1-7F9)

Novo Nordisk

Monoclonal antibody that activates the body's natural killer cells to kill tumor cells

Elotuzumab (HuLuc63; humanized anti-CS1 monoclonal antibody)

Facet Biotech/Bristol-Myers Squibb

Monoclonal antibody that binds to CS1, a cell surface protein that is highly expressed on myeloma cells; being evaluated alone and in combination with Velcade LEARN MORE

GRN163L

Geron Corp.

Telomerase inhibitor that has been shown in vitro to induce apoptosis and inhibit myeloma cell growth; being evaluated alone and in combination with Velcade

HCD122

Novartis

Anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody

HuMax-CD38

Genmab

Human monoclonal antibody that targets the CD38 molecule, which is highly expressed on the surface of myeloma cells

IMGN901
(huN901-DM1, BB-10901)

Immunogen

Monoclonal antibody directed against the CD56 marker found on myeloma cells coupled with a cancer drug

Milatuzumab
(hLL1, IMMU-110)

Immunomedics

Humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the CD74 protein found on B cells and myeloma cells

Oncolytic measles virus
(MV-NIS)

Mayo Clinic

Genetically engineered measles virus being administered with or without cyclophosphamide

Salinosporamide A
(NPI-0052)

Nereus Pharmaceuticals

Novel marine derived proteasome inhibitor active against myeloma cells that are resistant to Velcade

SGN40

Seattle Genetics

Monoclonal antibody directed against CD40 being evaluated in combination with Revlimid-dex or Velcade

Zemplar™
(paricalcitol)

Abbott

Activated vitamin D therapy being evaluated in combination with Zometa

Zevalin®
(yttrium Y 90 ibritumomab tiuxetan)

Cell Therapeutics, Inc.

Radiolabeled monoclonal antibody FDA-approved for use in combination with Rituxan (rituximab) for the treatment of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; the combination is being evaluated prior to high-dose melphalan and stem cell transplant